Lungs are exposed to a lot of toxic substances we inhale, such as pollution or tobacco, that's why lung cancer is so common. There are two most common kinds of lung cancers: These two forms do not growth identically and have different treatments
The small cell lung cancer is the more serious because it cannot be detected early, and most of the time, by the time it is diagnosed only after cancer has spread to other organs. There are three major types of small cell lung cancer:
Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. It usually spreads more slowly than other lung cancers. There are three major types of non-small cell lung cancer:
When cancer develops in the lining of the lungs - otherwise known as the pleura - the disease that results is referred to as pleural mesothelioma. the pleura is a sac which contains the lungs as well as a thin membrane known as the mesothelium, which secretes a vital fluid that enables the lungs to expand and contract during the breathing process.Treatments and Procedures
Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, Immunotherapy (used alone or in various combinations) are the standard methods used to treat lung cancer. The choice of treatment depends on many factors, including the type of tumor, the extent of the disease when it is diagnosed, the age and general health of the patient and other variables.
For small cell cancers, only chemotherapy can be efficient. Sometimes, thoracic radiotherapy is also associated. As the risk of brain metastasis is very high (blood goes directly from lungs to brain), a prophylactic skull radiation exposure is done.
Surgical procedures that may be employed include wedge or segmental resection (removal of a portion of the affected lungs), lobectomy (removal of the entire lobe of the lung) or pneumonectomy (removal of the entire right or left lung).
For non-small cell cancers, if the tumor can be removed surgically, the surgeon will remove one lobe or the entire affected lung (depending on the size and location of the tumor) and the closest lymph nodes, which can contain cancerous cells. If the patient is too weak to have an operation, radiotherapy associated to chemotherapy can be done instead. When the tumor has spread too much and is not removable, or if there are metastases, patient is treated by radiotherapy along with chemotherapy.
For cancer of the pleural mesothelioma, treatment options are limited. Only a handful of mesothelioma patients afflicted with this form of the disease are candidates for surgery to remove tumors, especially since the tumors are often large and widespread by the time of diagnosis. If only outer pleuron is affected, chemotherapy can be efficient. The possibility of surgery has to be discussed for every patient specifically. Most of the time, both pleura and lung are removed, and radiotherapy is associated. Surgery may be an option later, if the oncologist thinks the removal of a lung would benefit the patient. More often, pleural mesothelioma patients are treated with radiation or chemotherapy.Immunotherapy.
Immunotherapy drugs for lung cancer help your body recognize the cancer as foreign and harmful so your body can fight it.1. Immune checkpoint inhibitors
The most progress in immunotherapy for lung cancer has been made in immune checkpoint inhibitors. Immune checkpoints are molecules on the immune cells that can start or stop an immune response. The immune system uses these molecules to help determine what is normal and what should be attacked. Cancer cells sometimes trick the immune system by displaying these checkpoints to stop the body from attacking them. Immunotherapy drugs can prevent the immune system from getting tricked and helps stimulate a response against cancer cells.
These drugs can have similar side effects to chemotherapy, including fatigue, nausea, itching, skin rash, and more, but they are generally less toxic than chemotherapy. However, because the drugs work by stimulating the immune system, it is possible to develop immune-related side effects from an over-stimulated immune system that can affect how your organs function.2. Cancer vaccines
When most people think of vaccines they think of treatments that prevent disease. However, there is another type of vaccine called a therapeutic vaccine. This type of vaccine treats an existing cancer by making the immune system better at killing cancer cells. These vaccines target proteins that are present in cancer cells that are either not present in normal cells or are only sparingly present in normal cells. Sometimes, the vaccines are customized to target proteins that are unique to an individual’s cancer. In other cases, the vaccines target cancer-specific proteins shared by many people. Before a vaccine is given, it is often necessary to first take a medicine to dampen the types of immune cells that may allow a cancer to grow and boost the types of immune cells that can respond to cancer. There is currently no approved vaccine for lung cancer treatment.3. Adoptive T cell therapy
In this therapy, T cells (a type of white blood cell in the immune system) are removed from your body and then altered in a laboratory so they are better at attacking your specific cancer cells. Finally, the enhanced T cells are put back into your body to help it fight cancer. Removing the T cells from your body can be done by a procedure called plasmapheresis which helps filter your blood to specifically identify certain types of blood cells. It can also be done by removing part of the tumor and separating T cells from the tissue.Technology Used:
Apart from surgery and chemotherapy, the new age technology used to treat lung cancer include Radiology and Radiation Oncology, which are advanced imaging technology that can be used to detect lung cancer.
Technologies for detection of cancer:
New cutting-edge equipment include the CyberKnife® VSI robotic radiosurgery, which are at the cutting edge of this technology – both offering pain-free non-invasive treatment with far greater accuracy and speed. Other leading-edge treatment technologies available include:
OMEGA offers the latest and most advanced lung cancer treatments in India. The oncology clinic in Omega is comprised of physicians dedicated to treating lung cancer and metastases to the system with the latest technology. Because our physicians are specialists in oncology, hematology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology and lung cancer treatment, you can rest assured you’re receiving the best care available. We work with specialists in other areas of care when necessary to give you a comprehensive approach to treatment of Lung cancer.
Apart from doctors, we have radiologists who specialize in Imaging, Neuroradiology, PET CT, Abdominal Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Musculoskeletal Imaging We are uniquely positioned to make the tremendous power of these technologies work towards giving you the best cancer treatment.