External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT):

In EBRT, a machine called a linear accelerator (LINAC) delivers targeted radiation beams from outside the body to the tumour. This is the most common form of radiotherapy. Types of EBRT include:

3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT):

To reduce damage to neighbouring healthy tissues, this technique modifies the radiation doses to match the size and shape of the tumour.

Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT):

In IMRT, radiation is delivered into many “beamlets”, and adjusts the intensity of the beams of radiation to multiple small areas within the tumour, allowing for even more precise targeting while sparing surrounding healthy tissues.

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) or Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS):

These techniques deliver high doses of radiation with extreme precision, often in one to five sessions, for small tumours or lesions in critical locations (inoperable). SBRT/SRS is delivered with real-time tracking, providing exact treatments with CYBER KNIFE.

Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT):

It is the process of performing imaging before daily radiotherapy, with the intent of improving target accuracy and precision by correcting for geometric and anatomic deviations. This improved precision leads to more accurate radiotherapy to tumours and less morbidity by sparing more normal tissue.

Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART):

ART uses a plan-of-a-day approach where the plan is changed daily according to the anatomical and physiological changes of the tumour and surrounding tissues. ART improves treatment accuracy and allows personalised treatment plans delivered with Ethos LINAC (AI).

Proton therapy:

Proton therapy uses proton beams instead of traditional X-rays. Protons can be more precisely targeted and deliver radiation with less damage to healthy tissues.


Tomotherapy combines intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with CT imaging, allowing for continuous radiation delivery while rotating around the patient. This provides precise targeting and minimises radiation exposure to healthy tissue.

Total Body Irradiation (TBI):

TBI is used before bone marrow or stem cell transplantation to treat the entire body with radiation, typically for conditions like leukaemia or lymphoma.

Machinery used in External Beam Radiotherapy:


Versa HD





Cyber Knife