2. Circumcision

Circumcision is a procedure that removes the foreskin from the human penis.

Circumcision is generally electively performed, most commonly done as a form of preventive healthcare, as a religious practice, or as a cultural practice. It is also done for cases of phimosis, other pathologies that do not resolve with various treatments, and chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs), penile cancer involving the glans, refractory balanoposthitis.

Neonatal circumcision decreases the risk of penile cancer.

Complications include bleeding, infection, meatal stenosis, etc.

Contraindications include structure abnormalities, such as a misplaced urethral opening (as in hypospadias and epispadias), curvature of the head of the penis (chordee), or ambiguous genitalia because the foreskin may be needed for reconstructive surgery, premature infants, bleeding disorders.